Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, With R. McMaster , M. White , D. Figart, E. To buy and see reviews, see here. Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , Buy here. Reviewed in the Journal of Economic Geography , by A. Schmidt and W. Keuvelaar T. Clary and D. Vang, Research Policy , 37 1 , Chong Journal of Economic Issues 51 2 : , Jolink , Journal of Business Ethics 89 3 : , Available in Russian. The Elgar Companion to Social Economics ed.
Understanding Mergers and Acquisition in the 21st Century with K. Understanding the Dynamics of a Knowledge Economy ed. Soete Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, Dannreuther Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, March Multinationals and Emerging Economies the quest for innovation and sustainability Ed.
Fighting the War on File Sharing with A. Ethics and the Market Insights from Social Economics ed. Interdisciplinary Economics Kenneth E. With K. McCarthy and M. Fiolet Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, Oaths and Codes in Economics and Business with B. Knowledge Dynamics out of balance special issue, Co-guest edited with C. Innovation in Service Firms Explored: what, how and why? Dolfsma, J. Meijaard EIM report, January De Wit-De Vries, M. Becker, H. Diaz Pedregal and N.
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Freeman, C. Freeman, R. Harrison, and A. Gendron, C. Bisaillon and A. Giovannucci, D. Glaser, B. Granovetter, M. Gray, B. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 27 1 Gundlach, G. Habermas, J. Hira, A. In Taiwan, the government established a consumer protection mechanism specifically to improve the quality of products and maintain a fair consumption environment Consumer Protection Committee, Executive Yuan, Furthermore, it has engaged in various aspects of consumer education practices, leading to an increased level of consumer consciousness and self-awareness among consumers.
In addition, the mechanism also involves an effective dispute-handling system. When consumer disputes arise, consumers can quickly and accurately obtain appropriate compensation Consumer Protection Committee, Executive Yuan, Nowadays, more Taiwanese companies are turning their attention towards environmental sustainability. Consumers have learned about the drawbacks of greenwash and they perceive that the environmental claims of green products are neither true nor transparent Chen and Chang, Consequently, consumer confusion and perceived risk are found to be a barrier to green marketing product consumption in the marketplace.
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In Japan, Japanese managers consider unethical practices relating to marketing activities as the most unacceptable. This study also reveals that Japanese managers tend to choose what is in the interest of the company over their own ethical beliefs when these conflict with each other. In South Korea, advertising to children has been the subject of considerable concern for the public. For example, it is argued that TV food advertisements have had a noticeable impact on the incidence of obesity. Childhood obesity rates have been doubling every year since and in reached In recent years, public demand for regulations targeting food advertisements has increased dramatically.
Therefore, the Special Act finally went into effect in , restricting marketing activities for food products containing high levels of fat, sugar, salt and calories. In a recent paper, Nguyen et al. Media attention on ethics has resulted in many top brands suffering from consumer boycotts and research shows that consumers are less trusting of ethical claims in advertisements. Therefore, country-branding focusing on ethics may also require care. Again, the countries vary. In Singapore, the key to success lies in the emphasis on human capital dimensions Szondi, To win over the public, it is suggested that Singapore needs to continue its focus on businesses and investment, but also highlight more of their good causes and global ethical and social responsibility issues, which are beneficial for investors and citizens alike.
To win over the public, it is suggested that Malaysia needs to be more involved with good causes and global issues. In Thailand, places like Bangkok city centre and beach resort holidays are world-class holiday destinations. However, frequent natural disasters, such as flooding and tsunamis, risk reducing tourism and inward investment, diminishing competitiveness Wanjiru, , as do political and civil tension, conflicts and unrest. The country has vast raw material resources, such as rice production, in which they enjoy core competencies that others cannot replicate Gilmore, To win over the public, it is suggested that Thailand must expand their ethical management to areas that involve human capital, to overcome images of stereotyping.
In addition, it is vital that ethics are strongly embedded in all aspects of their country-branding, namely their politics and government. Contemporary issues in ethical marketing in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are important to highlight. Ethical marketing here has to be examined and understood in the specific context population, poverty, literacy, income inequality, etc.
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All are perceived as high on corruption scales, with India having a slightly better rank the lower the rank, less corrupt the country of 94 out of countries , and Pakistan and Bangladesh are at and , respectively. Corruption scandals are rife; corruption, unemployment and development have dominated elections. The growth of certain new political parties, like the Aam Admi Party AAP in India and Tahree-e-Insaaf in Pakistan, is mainly attributed to the increasing concerns of citizens about corruption and the inability of traditional political parties to deal with it.
Whatever may be the reasons for corruption, it affects the ethical behaviour of all the stakeholders involved in a transaction. It also deeply impacts on ethical marketing.
Governing the moral economy: Animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science
In Vietnam, marketers still lack active professional associations enforcing strict codes of ethics. The Government Inspectorate found that corruption and waste occurred mainly in the areas of land use, credit, banking, asset management and capital, causing huge economic losses and public discontent.
From a marketing perspective, support from both the government and international community may assist Vietnamese businesses, and in particular, marketers to improve their procedures, outcomes and not least their virtue and morality. Awareness and training are needed, however, on many levels. Ethics by virtue and character are also warranted in order to further improve the reputation of Vietnam. With time and proper institutional frameworks, marketers in Vietnam may join various associations and adhere to their code of ethics. In this way, companies and customers alike will be better off.
In Cambodia, there is little written on the topic of ethical marketing. However, there is evidence that it is practised to a great extent. According to StartSomeGood. For marketers, early education in ethics, fairness and morality may foster greater awareness and improved ethical marketing skills. The future of Cambodia depends on it. In the Philippines, business ethics are greatly influenced by geographic fragmentation, plurality of languages and ethnicities, and the predominant Roman Catholic religion, together with the still relatively short experience of nationhood.
Among the countries in this cluster, the Philippines is probably the most advanced in terms of different professional bodies related to codes of ethics, including the marketing society MORES Marketing and Opinion Research Society. Such a code of ethics provides integrity and trust to the marketing profession, which is an excellent starting point to improve the reputation of marketing. However, problems are also apparent. Recently, Philippines-based pharmaceutical companies have been urged by a coalition of health professionals and health advocates to follow a voluntary international code of business ethics in the bio-pharmaceutical industry that seeks to ensure the best interest of patients.
Overall, it seems that the Philippines is on the right track towards marketing ethics, and its influences are fruitful for their international reputation as a place to conduct business and for foreign investors, tourists and other stakeholders. In Indonesia, issues with corruption and other unethical concerns are highlighted. In the wake of revelations, many government officials were found to have suspiciously large bank accounts, for suggesting that ethics had not taken hold among public servants.
Many call for the development of a code of ethics to prevent corruption, and note how important codes of ethics and standards for behaviour are as instruments for enforcing discipline in state institutions. Marketers are not exempt from this either. The second part of our review covers differing perspectives of social marketing in Asia. We first present key analyses leading thinking on social marketing in China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. This article expands this definition by examining how cultural factors influence social marketing practice and research, using the Framework for Cross-cultural Social Marketing Research Dahl, This framework introduces a number of different points to consider and, therefore, contextualises social marketing interventions in the wider cultural and social context in which they occur, providing an important perspective.
In developed and Western countries, much emphasis is placed on issues such as energy consumption, safer driving, anti-smoking, and prevention of alcohol and drug abuse, while in developing countries, much of the social marketing focus centres on basic health issues, such as sanitation, family planning, and maternal and child health Saini and Mukul, The countries here are a mixture of developing and developed countries, as per the IMF classification International Monetary Fund, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan are classified as highly developed countries with advanced economies, while China is categorised as a developing country.
Despite the controversial nature of such a classification system, it may nevertheless give some insights into the likely impact of using the framework classification of economic contexts on issues likely to arise in the different countries. In China, wide-ranging reform plans were launched in with the aim of achieving universal health coverage by Social issues, such as urban migration on a massive scale, have resulted in significant problems related to environmental quality, including air and water pollution in urban centres.
Furthermore, increases in road traffic and vehicle ownership have increased road-safety issues in urban and rural areas, which are both pressing and potentially addressable by social marketing interventions. In South Korea, sustainable behaviours, such as purchasing of organic food, responsible use of transportation and donating to charity, have been found to be significantly more common than in the USA and Germany.
In Japan, the increase in obesity rates has not mirrored those of China. The concept of social marketing can be considered as a means to change voluntary behaviour in individuals and to influence policy. Covering Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand, we explore the formal definition of social marketing as: to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches, to influence behaviour that benefits individuals and communities for the greater social good, and explains how this definition is adopted in practice by social marketers today.
Examples from the three diversified countries are used to demonstrate how social marketing is being implemented in practice. For example, research findings from Singapore found obesity was not caused by a lack of knowledge among individuals. Research indicates that 66 percent of Singaporeans would like to lose weight and 62 percent acknowledged the importance of regular exercise. Yet knowing that one should eat a balanced diet and exercise regularly is not the same as actually doing it.
Many individuals who vowed to lose weight found it challenging to modify their lifestyles. In Malaysia, a study by Sajahan et al. Results of the survey indicated that only 2. The study concluded that while anti-drug campaigns obtained a positive response from the community, campaigns alone did not change drug-taking behaviour.
Insights from the evaluation would be useful to develop campaigns further to ensure that drug-taking behaviour is minimised. In Thailand, Population Development Associates PDA is a private organisation that markets a range of products and services through community development centres. A water tank project run by PDA builds water tanks in villages to help improve the quality of life for villagers.
It was not designed to provide revenue, although it covers some overheads for PDA Andreasen, Many commercial marketing concepts do not translate easily to social marketing, and these are areas being examined by social marketing researchers. Looking at social marketing in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, issues are explored with special reference to contraceptive social marketing programmes. In India, despite impressive economic growth and wealth creation, there are huge disparities in human development.
Other social challenges facing the country include gender inequality UNDP, Among all the challenges faced, unsustainable population growth remains one of the biggest areas of concern. It affects and is related to a number of other social issues. Consequently, the government launched a family planning programme supported by various international organisations.
In fact, social marketing was first introduced in India in the s to tackle this problem. However, experts are divided about the success rates of social marketing campaigns targeted at tackling this problem. Thus more focus is needed on contraception and family planning in social marketing programmes, by looking at the history and then examining some of the major issues and challenges faced by various social marketing campaigns.
In Pakistan, human development has also become a critical concern for sustainable economic growth, especially in the light of the high mortality rates of infants and under-5s. Of interest, perhaps, for the current discussion, is that the country is currently ranked as one of the lowest spenders on education and health in the region at about 2 percent of GDP World Bank, b.
However, Pakistan has made impressive reductions in its poverty rate; this currently stands at an estimated Bangladesh has been more successful in improving the social conditions compared to its two neighbours. A lot of the credit can be attributed to running social marketing campaigns effectively. Schellstefe and Ciszewski analysed the success of the Social Marketing Project, which was managed by Population Services International. This contraceptive and family planning programme was launched on a national scale in In the context of Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines and Indonesia, we now give an overview of the current state of play of social marketing practice and theory.
The key cases include health and sanitation programmes in Vietnam and Indonesia, oral health in the Philippines, road safety campaigns in Cambodia and Vietnam, and reproductive health campaigns throughout the region. In Vietnam, the case study examines where UNICEF has been working on providing equitable education and health care to the children of ethnic minority groups.
They have done this through providing bilingual programmes and free immunisation. The organisation provided information on its web page, prompting the online global community to share the message. In another case, by taking into account the significance of Buddhism as the national religion, UNICEF sought cooperation with numerous pagodas throughout Cambodia to form a health support programme through building a sense of community.
In Indonesia, the International Labour Office and its office in Jakarta launched a social marketing campaign with an educational angle to promote responsible workplace practice. In another campaign, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded DKT Indonesia to establish clinics for Indonesian midwives, in order to improve capacity to insert and remove intrauterine devices safely, and to create an environment whereby women gain increased access to family planning.
In the Philippines, disaster resilience is a critical issue, especially in coastal areas. When the country was severely devastated by Typhoon Haiyan in , the United Nations vowed to provide assistance, especially for children, by supporting back-to-learning efforts, developing a child protection system, rebuilding water systems for sanitation, supplying safe vaccines for prevention of diseases and providing services to children threatened by malnutrition.
In a different social marketing campaign, the government took a leading role in initiating and supporting numerous health programmes, including one that cut across all ages by improving oral health in the country for children, adolescents, pregnant women and elderly people, with a mixture of oral service provision, product provision, health education and development of relevant policies and protocols. The third part of our review covers studies exploring fairness in extant consumer behavioural and psychological theories and research. This enables readers to understand the role of fairness and its subsequent application in managing their marketing approaches and beyond, into areas of general management.
This is where in-group versus out-group memberships may play a role, especially in Asian countries with strong membership ties from various life-stage-related organisations e. Comparison within the relevant reference groups in-groups becomes more important and significant in determining fairness perceptions in countries with high collectivistic tendencies. In China and Taiwan, guanxi denotes the informal, socio-emotional and obligational nature of the relationship imposed on all involved parties within any business contexts. It is more than give and take. Inherently implied in this concept is the notion of individual sacrifice for the greater good of the in-group.
In Taiwan, unequal pay among same-level co-workers is acceptable in business settings, but equal payoffs are expected in personal settings Loewenstein et al. This reasoning supports how Hong Kong and Taiwan differ. Although they are both of Chinese culture, the overriding goal of society in Hong Kong has always been more economic, thus changing the fairness perceptions and resulting quality-of-life perceptions Liao et al. Deutsch argued that the collective goal of a group or society influenced the selection of a dominant fairness principle.
When economic productivity is a primary goal, equity will be the dominant principle; when fostering or maintenance of enjoyable social relations is the primary emphasis, equality is the typically selected principle. In Japan, when the other party is perceived as powerless, many feel that it is inappropriate to take advantage of the powerless party — hence, they divide according to the equality principle.
It is considered fair that the party with greater power earns a smaller portion of the surplus, sharing more with the weaker partner. This contrasts with the USA, where it is believed that it is fair for the party with greater power to take a larger share of the surplus Buchan et al.
Like guanxi , there is the importance of giri and con in networks and relationships Rowley and Harry, In South Korea, equality rather than equity may be preferred. Support is found from studies investigating consumer reactions to variable pricing or price increases. In one study involving hotel pricing tactics, Korean consumers perceived the variable-pricing practices as less fair than American consumers did Choi and Mattila, If using the equity principle, considerations should be given to defining what constitutes a valid input.
For example, Koreans are more sensitive to differences in seniority, education and family size in determining fairness of pay, whereas Americans are more sensitive to variations in individual job performance and work effort Hundley and Kim, In terms of networks and relationships, like guanxi , there is the importance of inmaek Rowley and Harry, In Singapore, cases of unfairness, discrimination and public outcry are often found in several areas, such as nepotism, school admission for the wealthy, fast-track promotions, preferential hiring according to nationality, etc.
While these issues are not entirely unique to Singapore, they tend to be more prevalent in a country that greatly supports meritocracy Singapore Armchair Critic, Influential bloggers such as the Singapore Armchair Critic SAC have published numerous articles on the topic, observing how meritocracy has caused great unfairness among its citizens.
One case involves the son of a former banking regulator and the other the daughter of a now-disgraced railway official. This has led to speculation about similar practices in Singapore. In Malaysia, Amin notes that in their everyday lives, consumers enter into various types of contracts for the supply of goods or services. However, in most cases, these contracts contain terms that are more favourable to traders and unfair to consumers.
Unfair terms typically occur in the form of exemption clauses, which are seen or printed on receipts, invoices and other sale documents. These standard form contracts are often designed by traders, thus they are commonly created out of self-interest, and are therefore biased and lead to unfair terms for consumers.
These terms may be extremely harsh against consumers, restricting their rights or denying them all together. In Thailand, examples of price discrimination between local residents and foreigners are not uncommon. Thailand has its own numbering system, which is unique to the Thai language.
When tourists shop, they will often see the price written using Arabic numbers. While this is convenient for tourists, especially at some attractions, many do not know that there is a two-tier system by which they charge foreign visitors more than local people. If you spot the prices written in Thai numbers and Arabic numbers then for sure there are two prices. I think they do it this way because they are ashamed to let you know they are charging you double. With issues relating to brand fairness management in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is noted that the marketing landscape today is dominated by suspicion and distrust as a result of practices that include hidden fees, deception, manipulation and information mishandling.
In such a pessimistic situation, marketers are re-conceptualising the notion of brand fairness in marketing and customer management, so that progress and advancement in marketing can flourish, avoiding further control and imposed regulation. In India, this is due to natural evolution and the rapid aging of society, which has resulted in a higher proportion of people in mid-life and beyond.
As consciousness is raised, people place great demands for transparency on companies, using the internet to accelerate this trend. These guidelines are presented along with the Pakistan context. These dimensions include: awareness and problem diagnosis; managing both targeted and non-targeted customers; and emphasis on positive associations and goodwill. In Bangladesh, the focus is on the educational sector and the education of marketing, emphasising morality in marketing.
We note that re-education in fairer ways for marketing and Customer Relationship Management CRM managers must be implemented early on. Fairness issues should be taught in books and classes early on, in order to achieve the true concept of relationship building and to obtain quality relationships between the involved parties Zeithaml et al. Students must learn what the determinants of a good relationship are Britton and Rose, The idea is not to eliminate these technologically advanced CRM applications, philosophies and approaches, but rather to find the causes of misbehaviour and work against them.
If managers do not understand where unfairness in CRM comes from, it will continue to grow. This is why it is imperative to find and understand the causes, and counteract them. Finally, we explore fairness from extant consumer behavioural and psychological theories and research applied to Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines and Indonesia.
The analyses of the fairness concept as part of customer relationship management CRM suggest that to achieve successful CRM implementation and long-lasting relationships, it is important to highlight four fundamental factors pertaining to a strong relationship:. So, if the local company sets their prices at the same level as their foreign counterparts, consumers may believe that the local company is cheating their customers with sub-standard products and services, or overly inflated prices. Many consumers will find this unfair and not buy their goods.
In another case, near the capital Hanoi, thousands of police overwhelmed villagers who were trying to protect a hectare acre plot of land, slated for use in a satellite city development Win, The examples of conflicts over land are a major source of friction between the public and officials, where rising land prices have led officials to move farmers off their land for more lucrative projects, often with little compensation.
In Cambodia, the actor Minnie Driver highlighted issues of exploitation and unfairness, by urging multinational companies to change their buying practices so poor workers could have better lives. She took the opportunity to say that she visited Cambodia not as a global economist or an expert on Cambodia, but as a Western consumer. She further made a passionate plea to the heads of large corporations to consider their buying and outsourcing practices.
In particular, she emphasised how every time corporations squeeze their employees to get lower production costs or faster production, the working women and their families back home suffer from such unfair treatment. In the Philippines, there were strong reactions towards a pension provider when consumers felt unfairly treated. The case quickly spread across the internet, gathering the support of many other consumers, who together spread their complaints and negative word of mouth via social media and the Philippine Star , a national news outlet.
The case started when Ocampo , a popular online blogger, detailed how Pryce Plans, Inc. It was seen as a clear violation of social norms and an unfair deal by the company. In Indonesia, many women and girls face unchallenged social attitudes, unfair laws and stereotyped gender roles in their struggle for fair and equal treatment Jakarta Post, Salil Shetty, of Amnesty International, comments that some of the barriers women face are a direct result of laws and policies that discriminate against them.
The latest report by Amnesty International states that these discriminatory laws and bylaws in Indonesia have altered the personal lives of poor and marginalised women by denying them full control of their reproductive systems. The growing interest in ethical and social marketing and fairness management approaches by organisations among academics and practitioners alike has been demonstrated.
Despite the sheer diversity of Asia, ethical and social marketing and fairness management have been shown to be particularly well received by some Asian firms and consumers due to emphasis on the greater societal good and Confucianism, often promoted by countries. The rest of this article considers the managerial implications of ethical and social marketing and fairness management in Asia.
As illustrated throughout this article, all the countries face different, complex issues, which require diverse approaches to ethics, social and fairness. By drawing from varying perspectives, we explore research and practices in very different sectors and organisations. We shall now explore the key implications for management and practice. First, ethical marketing guidelines are recommended across Asia. Firstly, marketers should learn how to integrate ethics into the planning and strategy formulation processes.
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Ethics should be coordinated throughout the whole marketing process, from product development e. Secondly, understanding consumer culture and their perceptions of marketing ethics motivates marketing managers to establish codes of ethics relied on in consumer evaluations. Thirdly, the increasing diversity of the international marketplace has significant and complex implications for marketing practices. In the past, multinational corporations MNCs experienced ethical dilemmas with their marketing strategies in other countries.